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Double Vision



4. Double Vision

- is among the most disorienting and devastating vision


- people suffering from double vision will often times go to

great lengths to alleviate the double image because it is so


-many will actually even patch or cover an eye, thereby

eliminating the vision from one eye just to get rid of their

double vision.

- is caused when the two eyes do not align or work

together and one eye actually turns out, in, up or

down compared to the fellow eye.

- the overall encompassing term from this strabisms.

The disorientation from double vision will frequently trigger

dizziness & balance problems.

- treatment is with lenses, prisms, therapy partial selective

occlusion and rarely surgery.

Binocular Vision Dysfunction


3.Binocular Vision Dysfunction

- refers to how the eyes works together as a team.

- it is coordination of convergence & divergence

( eye teaming and alignment ) with accomodation

( focusing ). Following trauma, fever, stroke, deconditioning,

or sometimes for no apparent reason dysfunctions can

occur causing the eyes to be weak or overactive.

- when this occurs, the eyes will manifest a tendency to

drift outwars or inwards.

- this in turn can cause eyestrain, double vision, muscle

spasm and excessive perpheral visual stimulation, which

in turn can trigger dizziness and balance problems.

- treatment is with lenses, prisms & theraphy.

Vertical Imbalance


2. Vertical Imbalance

- Normaly the eyes work in prefect synchrony. However,

following trauma, fever, stroke, deconditioning or sometimes

for no reason, one eye will aim higher than the other will.

- When mild and not enough to cause double vision this is

called hyperphoria.

- If excessive to the point of causing double vision, it is

termed hypertropia. In an effort to adjust to the person

will frequently tip their head to mechanically help align

the eyes.

- This in turn can cause disorder in the fluid of the inner

ear and resultant dizziness and balance disorders.

- Treatment is with therapy to correct the muscle

imbalance abd prisms.






Visual Dysfunction causing Dizziness &

 Balance Problems


- Aiseikonia is a conditions where an excessive differences in

prescription between the eyes causes a significant differences

in magnification of images seen between the eyes.

- When this magnification difference become excessive the

effect can cause disorientation, eyestrain, headache, and

dizziness & balance disorders.

- Treatment is with contact lenses or special magnification size

matched lenses called isokonic lenses called isokonic lenses.

Dizziness & Balance Problems related to vision





Dizziness & Balance Problems

Related to vision

- vision plays a significant role in balance.

- approximately 20% of the nerve fibers from the

eyes interact with the vestibular system.

- there are a variety of visual dysfunction that can

cause or associate with dizziness.

- sometimes there are purely visual problems and

    sometimes theyare caused from other disorders

such as stroke, head injury, vestibular

dysfuction, deconditioning and decompensation

Acanthamoeba Keratitis

Acanthamoeba eye infections in contact lens

wearer are rare but serious, and they often start because or improper handling

and poor hyginene. To avoid Acanthamoeba keratitis be sure to carefully

follow the lens care, handling and wearing instructions you receive from your

eye doctor.Proper contact lens care greatly reduces the risk of all  contact

lens-related eye infection,including those caused by Acanthameoba.

  Prevention is always the best approach, becauseAcanthamoeba keratitis can

be extremely difficult to treat in fact, sometimes thsese infections require a

cornea transplant, which is a serious surgical procedure.


What are Acanthamoeba ?

Acanthamoeba are naturally occuming amoeba

( tiny, one-called animals ) tubs and soil &

sewage systems. If these tiny parasites infect

the eye, Acanthamoeba keratitis results.

The conduction was first diagnosed in

1973, with about 90% of cases involving contact

lens wearers. 


What causes Acanthamoeba Keratitis ?

Factors and activities that increases the risk of

contracting Acanthamoeba keratitis include using

contaminated tap or well water on contact lenses

in a hot tub and swimming or showering while

wearing lenses. A dirty lens case also can be a

source of Acanthamoeba infections. But regardless 

of the cause of the increase, especially when rubbed

off the lens surface during cleaning. In the end, good

contact lens hygiene is the best way to prevent 

Acanthamoeba keratits.



How do you know if you have Acanthamoeba


Symptoms of a Acanthamoeba keratitis include red eyes 

and eye pain after removing your contact lenses, as well 

as tearing, light senstivity, blurred vision and feeling that

something is in your eye. With these types of symptoms, 

you should always contact your eye doctor. 

But keep in mind that Acanthamoeba keratitis is often

difficult for eye doctor to diagnose at first, because it's

symptoms are similar to pink eye symptoms and those 

of conditions is resistant to antibiotics used to manage 

other infections. A ' ring-like ' ulceration of your corneal

tissue may also occur. Unfortunately, if not promptly 

treated. Acanthamoeba keratitis can use permanent vision 

loss or require a corneal transplant to recover lost vision.



Crossed Eyes in Kids

- Having strabismus ( also known as crossed eyes ) an

ailment in which your two eyes dont track in the same

direction, can cause many problems for children. They

may get picked on at school or have trouble completing

schoolwork. More importantlyuntreated strabismus can

cause permenant vision problems.

What happens when you have

strabismus ?

- Eyes are meant to work together to provide dept perception

( the ability to tell whether an object is close or far away ).

Part of your brain works to put together information

coming in from your eyes to give you this ability.

But if one eyes looks inwards or gazes outwards,

you can lose this ability forever.



something stuck in your eye ?

Have you ever gotten something stuck

in your eye and didn't know what to do

about it?

- Protecting your eyes from injury is extremely

important. And wearing eye protection can go

a long way toward preventing eye cuts, objects

in the eye, blows to the eye, and other dangerous


- But you may not always be able to protect

yourself from eye injuries. In that case, it's

important to know what to do when eye trauma

does occur.


What to do about eye cuts & puncture


- These type of eye injury require the immediate

attention of an eye doctor. If your eye/ eyelid

has been cut / punctured in any way, don't attempt

to wash the eye/ remove anything stuck in the eye.

Here are some more first aid tips for cuts and

punctures in and around the eyes :

*Avoid rubbing the eye or surrounding skin.

* Protect the eye from inadvertent rubbing

by covering the eye with a rigid

*Don't put pressure on the eye while holding

up the protective covering in case there is

a foreign body inside the cut.

*affix in protective covering the eye using

a piece of tape.

* Go to an eye doctor!


How to remove object from the Eye?

Whether it's a gran sand or some other particle,

here are suggestions on what to do and when an

object gets in your eye :

- Don't rub your eye to get the object that is

penetrating or embedded in the eye.

- Allow your tears to flow, it may help get the

object out.

-Try to use eye wash saline to wash

- See an eye doctor.

Get your eye checked up if you've

sustained any eye injury !






Ortho-K overnight lens to correct

Myopia !


What is Ortho-k ?

Orthokeratology ( ortho-k ) is the fitting of specially

designed gas permeable lenses that you wear overnight

while you are asleep, the lenses gently reshape the

front surface of your eye ( cornea ). so you can see

clearly the following day after you remove the

lenses when you wake up.

Ortho-k lenses are also prescribed for two purpose:

- to correct refractive errors

(primarily nearsightedness, but also astigmatism and

hyperopia )

-In some cases, Ortho-k also is used to correct presbyopia

Age-Related Eye Diseases

Age-Related Eye Diseases

- age related diseases and condition an older person's eye.

Since you 40's, you probably noticed that your vision is

changing.Perhaps you need glasses to see up close or you

have trouble adjusting to glare or distinguishing some colors.

These changes are a normal part of aging. But as you age-related

eye disease and conditions. These include : age-realted macular

degenaration,cataract, diabetic eye disease, glaucoma, low

vision and dry eye.

Get a camprehensive delated eye exam.

- Everyone age 50 or older should visit an eye care professional

for comprehensive dulated eye exam.

1. Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

- AMD is a disease associated with aging that gradually

destroy sharp, central vision. Central vision is needed for seeing

objectclearly and for common daily tasks such as reading and


2. Cataract

- A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye. Vision with

cataract can appear cloudy or blurry, colors may seem faded

and you may notice a lot of glare.

3. Diabetes Eye diseases

- Diabetes eye diseases is a complication of diabetes and a

leading cause of a diabetes and a leading cause of blindness.

The comman form is diabetic retinopathy which occurs

when diabetes damage the tiny blood vessel inside the retina.

4. Glaucoma

- Glaucoma is a group of disease that can damage the eyes

loss and blindness. It is usually associated with high pressure

in the eye and effects side or peripheral vision.

5. Dry eye

- Dry eye occurs when the eye does not produces tears properly

or when the tears are not of the correct consistency and

evaporate too quickly. Dry eye can make it more difficult to

perform some activities such as using a computer or reading

for an extended period of time.

6. Low vision

- Low vision means that even with regular glases, contact

lenses, medicine or surgery, people find everyday tasks

difficult to do. Reading the mail, shopping, cooking,

seeing the TV and writing can seem challenging.


Soft contact lenses


For those who wear soft contact lens !

 You should be aware that the following problems

may occurs: 

  -Eye stinging, burning, itching (irritation) or eye pain

  -Abnormal feeling of something in the eye ( foreign

   body, scatched eye )

  -Excessive watery ( tearing ) of the eyes.

  -Redness of the eye

  -Blurred vision

  -Sensitivity to light ( Photophobia )

  -Dry eye

If you notice any of the above systoms,

immediately remove your lenses


It is important to remember that some contact lens

related eye infection can cause serious vision loss

even blindness.  

*Eyes are red, painful, swollen and produce discharge.

 If you experience any of these symptoms, stop wear

lens immediately and consult your eye doctor. These

could be sign of a serious problem.


Bell's Palsy

Bell's Palsy

- Bell's palsy is a temporary weakness or paralysis of

the facical nerve knows as the seventh carnial nerve.

The nerve controls facial expressions, eyelid movement

andthe muscles of the forehead and neck.

- Bell's palsy usually occurs suddenly affecting the

greater part of one side of the face.

How does Bell's Palsy affect eyes?

-Most people with Bell's palsy are unable to blink on

the affected side of the affectedside of the face.

At the same time, the lower eyelid may turn outward

( ectropion ).

-The face and lips on the affected side because droopy,

and you have little or no control over their muscle that

opens the eye is controlled by a separate cranial nerve,

you can easily open the affected eye.But unfortunately

you are unable to close the eyelid.

Bell's Palsy treatment & Recovery

-Treatment for the bell's palsy usually includes generous

use of occular lubricants,such as non-preserved artificial

tears and eye oilments. Many people require the eyelid to

be patched or taped shut while sleeping, to keep it moist.

If you develop an outnardly turned eyelid, you may need

surgery to repair it.



Layer of the RETINA

The retina at the back of the eye is essential for all vision.

Each layer of cells in the tissue serves a specific purpose.



What is hyphema ?

- is a pooling or collection of blood inside the duterior chamber of eye

( the space between the cornea and the iris ). The blood may cover most

and all of the iris and pupil. Blocking vision partially or completely.

A hyphema is usually painful. If left untreated, it can cause

permanent vison problems.

What are the symsptoms of a hyphema ?

- visible blood in the front of thr eye.

-senstivity to light


-blurry, clouded / blocked vision

-blood might not be visible of the hyphem is small

A hyphema can aslo be caused by :

-abnormal blood vessels on the surface of the iris

-eye inflection caused by the helps virus

-blood clotting problems such as

 Hemophilia and sickle cell anemia

-intraocular lens problems ( artifical lens implants )

- cancer of the eyes.


Diabetes Eye Problems

Two other eye problems can happen

to people with diabetes !

-A cataract is a cloud over the lens of your eye.

Surgery helps you see clearly again.

-Glaucoma happens when pressure builds up in the eye,

damaging the main nerve. Eye drop or surgery can help.

If you have diabetes, you should have a complete

eye exam every year.

Find & Treat problems early may save your vision !

Diabetes Eye Problems

Diabetes eye problems are called : Diabetic Retinopathy.

If you have diabetes your blood glucose or blood sugar levels are too high.

Over time, this can damage your eyes. Our retina is the light -sensitivity

tissue at the back of your eyes. You need a healthy retina to see clearly.

Diabetic Retinipathy damage the tiny blood vessels inside your retina.


You may not notice it at first. Symptoms can include :

-Blurry or double vission

-Rings, fleshy lights/ blank spots

-Dark/ floating spots.

-Pain/ pressure in one or both of eyes

-Trouble seeing things out of the corners of eyes

Over Production of tears

Watery eyes (over production of tears).

: Some chemicals such as fumes & even onions

- infective conjuctivitis

- allergic conjuctivitis

- an injury to the eye, such as a scratch or a bit of grit ( tiny piece of dirt )

- Trichiasis : inward growing eyelash , (the eye lid turns in at the edges towards the eyes)

- Ectropion : this is when the lower eyelid turns outwards

The Causes


- A blocked tear duct is when the eyes drainage system for tears is either

partially or completely obstructed. Tears Cannot Drain Normally !



Watery Eye

Watery Eyes?

Is a condition when there is an overflow of tears.

Two main causes : - Blocked Tear Ducts

                               - Excessive Production of Tears



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